Nature-based defence projects also report benefits ranging from reductions in storm damage to reductions in coastal structure costs. Reducing the effects of coastal development is critically important; it threatens nearly 25% of the world’s coral reefs, particularly in Southeast Asia, and the Indian and the Atlantic oceans. Restoration objectives vary across habitat types, with most mangrove and marsh habitats reporting coastal protection as a primary objective. On Balance: The Persistence of Appraisal Optimism in Benefit-Cost Analysis. sustainable development”. Whilst the economy exists to support the well-being of society, it is still only a subordinate component of society. Breakwater cost curves are for an incident wave height Hsi of 0.2 m. All costs are represented on a per-metre coastline length basis (see Methods). The SDGs replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the set of eight goals that shaped the international development agenda during 2000-15. 2.LonG term management between means and resources for future generation. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In many instances the degradation of coastal habitats can result in a decrease in coastal protection and increase risk of coastal flooding [4,5]. Salt-marshes are almost as effective in terms of wave reduction but occur in more sheltered environments. Affiliation For pairing the project sites with field measurements, thirteen unique pairs were identified that occur a) at close proximity; b) in similar coastal setting, e.g. This relates to how people grasp and achieve sustainable development. Sustainable Development. where B is the cross-shore width of the habitat (m) (i.e. One point (circled in red) with very low relative height and very high wave attenuation was excluded as an outlier for the regression analysis (see S1 Methods). Average effect size as log response ratio of the wave reduction, R due to each habitat type for coral reefs, salt-marshes, mangroves and seagrass/kelp beds. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735, Editor: Maura (Gee) Geraldine Chapman, University of Sydney, AUSTRALIA, Received: January 11, 2016; Accepted: April 18, 2016; Published: May 2, 2016. The first two parameters—Hi/h and B/L are dependent on the incoming wave height. This would include, for instance, before and after observations of whether a restoration project designed for coastal protection has achieved its stated objectives. In many areas, wide shallow reef flats have been reclaimed and converted to airports, industrial, or urban lands. There is hence great interest in identifying effective, and cost effective solutions that help conserve habitats and protect coastlines [10,11]. … Worth noting is that in the two decades leading to the political changes in 2002, Kenya’s The high reduction by coral reefs agrees with the results of [21], and the ordering of the other habitats is generally in agreement with the review by [23] which considered similar parameters in their re-analyses of field evidence for these habitats. Dots represent average values and error bars represent 95% Confidence Intervals). Nature-based defences refer to restoration projects that specifically include coastal protection as an objective (definitions adapted from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report on Natural and Nature-based Features [12]). Widespread consideration and use of habitats for coastal protection still face significant challenges including: a) uncertainty around the effectiveness of habitats under different hydrodynamic and ecological conditions; b) a lack of synthetic information about the costs and effectiveness of projects that restore or manage habitats for coastal protection; and c) a paucity of studies that integrate and synthesise engineering and ecological knowledge to provide site-specific comparisons of the costs and effectiveness of nature-based defences versus hard structures. These analyses were performed only for coral reef and salt-marsh habitats. in wetland habitats like mangroves, marshes or seagrass beds). We only searched for projects that were targeted at coastal protection and reported sufficient information on costs and habitat characteristics for further analyses (see S1 Methods, S3 Table). scrutinized over 200 peer-reviewed scientific papers from which they identified 94 restoration case studies with meaningful cost data . Citation: Narayan S, Beck MW, Reguero BG, Losada IJ, van Wesenbeeck B, Pontee N, et al. Coastal areas are used for tourism, fishing, industry, trade and transport. Ideally, in future, more demonstration and reference sites would be available at multiple scales, to be able to compare the costs and effectiveness of nature-based defences versus artificial structures [27]. Wave reduction in each habitat is influenced by different parameters. do not report incident wave heights, were excluded for these parameters. The number of independent studies analysed is indicated in brackets. Photo © Jeff Yonover. No, Is the Subject Area "Mangrove swamps" applicable to this article? Mangroves and seagrass/kelp beds are not discussed due to the lack of comparable data on design parameters for these habitats. The major economic benefits of sustainable construction are reduced operation and utility costs, reduced maintenance costs, and an overall improvement in the buildings performance and efficiency [ 14]. These analyses and syntheses demonstrate the following: a) coastal habitats–particularly coral reefs and salt-marshes–have significant potential for reducing wave heights and providing protection at the shoreline; b) restoration projects for which data are available–i.e., mangrove and marsh projects–can be cost-effective relative to submerged breakwaters in attenuating low waves and become more cost-effective at higher water depths; c) a number of nature-based defence projects, especially in mangroves and marshes, have been observed to offer protection during storms. (2005) and US Army Corps of Engineers (2015b). In their re-analyses of field data, Pinsky et al., [23] show high variability in wave reduction between habitats and investigate the influence of biophysical parameters on this variability–namely, the local flow conditions (Reynold’s number) and the resistance to flow provided by the habitat (the bulk drag coefficient). Photo © Katie Fuller 2009/Marine Photobank. Department of Ocean Sciences, UC Santa Cruz / The Nature Conservancy, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America, Affiliation Absolute wave reduction extents are plotted against incident wave height for a) coral reefs (n = 27); b) mangroves (n = 11); c) salt-marshes (n = 14); d) seagrass/kelp beds (n = 5). A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. This paper analyses sixty-nine field measurements to show that habitats have a significant influence on wave reduction, demonstrates the influence of specific engineering parameters on wave reduction effectiveness, reviews the costs and benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects (Fig 2), and demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of some of these projects relative to structures that provide the same wave reduction. These results provide insights on where and how coastal habitats and nature-based defence projects may be viable and cost effective, and also, on the key parameters that should be assessed when designing these projects. Coral reefs are naturally adapted to low-nutrient waters, so the addition of nutrients can be particularly harmful for coral reef communities. Many people think that the health of the economy is paramount and that individual and social well-being derives from that. Values in brackets indicate 95% confidence intervals. No, Is the Subject Area "Seaweed" applicable to this article? Such regional differences are also reflected in the reported habitat restoration costs in these countries. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. Construction projects in coastal cities and communities may be built on land reclaimed from the sea. Table 1.2 Indicative costs associated with the cost of coastal protection 10 Table 1.3 Key cost considerations for coastal works 11 Table 1.4 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with beach recycling/recharge 13 Table 1.5 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with coastal walls 14 In the cost comparisons we look for structures that are equivalent to marshes and mangroves in function–i.e. … Benefits Of A Sustainable Development Essay 874 Words 4 Pages As a company which states a sustainable development as one of its main development goals, HP has presented numerous global social initiatives that may safeguard the society as well as the health of company’s employees. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. Construction projects (piers, channels, airstrips, dikes, land reclamation, etc. Since structure costs are critically dependent on water depth we also generated cost curves for breakwater construction at different water depths for a fixed wave height of 0.2 m–the average wave height across all NbD sites, and plotted these together with NbD costs (Fig 3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.g002. The analyses of costs and benefits of nature-based defence projects were done for fifty-two restoration projects in coral reefs, oyster reefs, salt-marshes and mangroves, that were specifically targeted at coastal protection. Only total project costs and habitat extents were used, given the high variability in the relationship between restoration project costs and sizes (see Methods). The contribution of habitats to coastal protection is increasingly addressed in science, policy and practice [16,17,18]. Breakwater dimensions were computed per metre coastline using standard coastal engineering formulae [53]; see S1 Methods: Eqs [SI 11]–[SI 13]). All costs were summarised on a per m2 basis. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s007. Catálogo de Buenas Prácticas de uso del Suelo, Manejo del Paisaje y Construcción en la zona Costera de Quintana Rooopens PDF file. [2] Variations in wave reduction and cost effectiveness are dependent on multiple parameters including water depth and vegetation / reef height. There is also a growing interest in developing guidance about habitat restoration for nature-based defences but this has largely been identified based more on case studies than syntheses [12,18,19]. The paper also synthesises information on the benefits of restoration projects for coastal protection. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America, Affiliation A key parameter in intertidal vegetated habitats such as mangroves and marshes is the relative height of the vegetation i.e. Sustainable development as a new model of development has become a trend of social development in many countries. Restoration objectives vary across habitat types, with most mangrove and marsh habitats reporting coastal protection as a primary objective. Reducing your use of raw materials can cut your costs, minimise your waste and lower your waste disposal bills - see how to reduce your business waste to save money . here. Land clearing and construction projects may change the natural drainage patterns, resulting in freshwater, nutrient, and sediment runoff onto adjacent reefs. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s008, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s009, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s010, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s011. Sustainable Development The International Institute for Sustainable Development refers to the 'Brundtland Report' whom define the term sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. habitat. But critical questions remain about when these projects can be used effectively for coastal protection, for example about the costs of a habitat restoration project relative to other, more conventional alternatives. Together with their ability to keep pace with sea-level rise [27] this suggests that nature-based defences can become increasingly viable on sheltered coastlines. This research was primarily supported by the by SNAPP: Science for Nature and People Partnership, a collaboration of The Nature Conservancy, the Wildlife Conservation Society and the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). Tens of millions of people world-wide will be affected in the next few decades by coastal flooding due to sea-level rise and associated increases in wave action and surges [1,2]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s001. Mangroves and seagrass / kelp beds are about half as effective, with mangroves occurring in the most sheltered environments (see S1 Table). Impacts of Deep Horizon 2010 oil spill cost 62 billion USD to British Petroleum (USA Today, 2016), and the cost of oil spills following shipwreck of oil tankers, such as the Prestige at the Spanish and Portuguese coasts in 2002, were estimated in billion dollars (Loureiro et al. The data for the wave reduction analyses are all obtained from field observations of wave heights and hydrological variables. The Role of Ecosystem Services in Sustainable Development in the Context of Coastal Developing States in Sub-Saharan Africa 198 The three pillars of sustainable development are embedded in the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution, which lay down the framework for social justice in Kenya. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.t001. The study reveals that the main potentialities of sustainable development in ECER through ecotourism are increase per capita income, ecological and conservational benefit, improve the life condition, reduce poverty, respectful to local culture, positive attitude of local community, employment opportunity and regional growth. Based on existing literature it was assumed that breakwater construction costs are uniform across the sites in Europe/USA and ten times lower for the sites in Vietnam [28]. This reduction in wave height depends on habitat and site-specific ecological and geophysical parameters that influence the dynamics of incoming waves (Fig 1). The average values of wavelength were obtained at each location from a global dataset of wave characteristics [60]. (2016) The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences. This is particularly important for a future where variations in rates of sea-level rise and other environmental factors can result in a spatial variability in wave heights [50,51]. 3.4 Coastal and Marine Resources 31 3.4.1 National programmes and plans ... 7.1 Key challenges for sustainable development 54 7.2 Key opportunities for sustainable development 55 7.3 Key priorities for sustainable development 56 7.4 Challenges, Needs and Priorities for future MSI Implementation 57 Such evaluation typically involves a before-after comparison of the coastal hazard at the site. Coastal Development. The economy is entirely dependent on resources from nature to sustain it, as well as the energy of peo… The response variable–namely, the reduction in wave height was expressed as a % of the incoming wave height (see S2 Table): [12]. On Balance: The Persistence of Appraisal Optimism in Benefit-Cost Analysis. construction cost per metre length of coastline–of 1 cubic metre of breakwater was estimated as: First we extend previous syntheses of wave reduction field measurements in coastal habitats [21,22,23] to include more measurements and improve understanding of the variability across habitats in reducing wave heights, focusing in particular on engineering parameters that will be critical in assessing and designing restoration projects. These habitats provide a number of ecosystem services, or benefits, including coastal protection, fish production, recreation and other economic and cultural values [3]. The definition of sustainable development has provided a big step forward. These could usefully include demonstrations of projects implemented in different physical settings [20], theoretical design frameworks [48,49], or even, evaluations of nature-based defences within national accounts [37]. reports, assessments, surveys, etc.) They are also being driven by interest from national and multi-national agencies [10,12,14,15]. Fig is adapted from van der Meer et al. For instance, wave reduction in coral reefs is mainly influenced by: (i) the relative wave height, i.e. Breakwater construction cost was assumed to be proportionate to the size of the structure [63,64], and using Eqs [9] and [10] the cost per metre coastline length was estimated for each replacement breakwater, For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click 2004 ), the costs of reducing coastal risks are mainly supported by national or regional budgets in the North Sea countries and almost never by … Significant relationship found only for coral reefs. where, Vstruc is the volume per metre coastline of the breakwater and Cstruc_unit the unit construction cost of one cubic metre of breakwater, per metre coastline. This is not true. This is in line with findings from [21] and [23]. The major economic benefits of sustainable construction are reduced operation and utility costs, reduced maintenance costs, and an overall improvement in the buildings performance and efficiency [ 14 ] . Coastal Planning and Engineering, CH2M HILL / University of Southampton, Swindon, United Kingdom, Affiliation It is also perceived that the short term costs of sustainable practices are too high to justify their application in a highly competitive market. Yes However, a restoration project can typically have multiple objectives, the evaluation of which will require monitoring of outcomes at multiple impact and reference sites. While there are some indications that mangroves and marshes can offer protection from high water levels (Table 1), we do not find enough evidence on this for a comparison of effectiveness, and as such, focus on their wave reduction function. Yes In the meta-analyses, seagrass and kelp beds were treated together due to similarities in location and the mechanism by which they reduce wave heights (see Fig 1). The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost effective at greater depths. Ideally, project costs, site conditions and wave reduction extents should be measured at the same location. The assistance and support of Dr. Filippo Ferrario, Laval University, Québec, is also gratefully acknowledged. This study focuses on coastal protection by wave reduction, though habitats often provide other ecosystem services such as biodiversity, fish production, recreation and many other social, economic and cultural values [33]. The paper concludes with some thoughts on future research challenges in sustainable operations management, highlighting three areas—green product and process development, lean-and-green OM, and, remanufacturing and closed-loop supply chains—that integrate essential aspects of sustainable … Sustainability is the development to meet current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). The literature search did not find any projects within seagrass or kelp beds that met these criteria. On average, coastal habitats reduce wave heights between 35% and 71%. The field measurements are then mapped and, based on their location and habitat type, are combined with details of nearby nature-based defence projects. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.g001. In our study, data from field measurements are used to directly investigate the influence of biophysical parameters on this variability (Fig 1). Only studies that provided some quantitative information (observed or estimated) on project extents, costs and/or benefits were included in the analyses. Also, the loss of existing coastal habitats and their replacement by man-made structures can result in loss of these ecosystem services [35]. Theory and Practice in the Choice of Social Discount Rate for Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Survey 41 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Theoretical Foundations for the Choice of a SDR 43 3.2.1 Approaches to Discounting Future Benefits and Costs: We also gratefully acknowledge support from the Lyda Hill Foundation, a Pew Fellowship in Marine Conservation to MWB, and the World Bank WAVES program. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supplementary Information files. 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