Pre-Roman Britain – 1c Iron Age Hill Forts. Free Online Games about Ireland for Kids. display: none !important; By the third century B.C., the Celts controlled much of the European continent north of the Alps mountain range, including present-day Ireland and Great Britain.It is these islands off Europe’s western coast in which Celtic culture was allowed to survive and thrive, as the Roman Empire expanded on the European continent. Dunadd Hill Fort Fact Sheet. timeout There remains much evidence of Iron Age settlement in Cumbria, with hill forts, such as those at Castle Crag in Borrowdale and Dunmallard Hill, near Pooley Bridge, Ullswater. This map shows where in Britain they lived. Usually formed of huge earthen banks and ditches, hillforts come in all shapes and sizes. Crickley Hill is an Iron Age site in the Cotswold hills of Gloucestershire. It was surrounded by enclosure of stakes. Thousands of ancient hill forts across Ireland and Britain have been located and published in a new online database. Celts had settled in many European countries including Austria, Britain, France, Holland, Belgium. Some Roman forts could hold up to 6,000 people. This site was in use thousands of years before the Celts arrived, however during the Iron age it became a major Celtic hill fort. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill and consists of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Maiden Castle in Dorset. The name Maiden Castle may be a modern construction meaning that the hill fort looks impregnable, or it could derive from the British Celtic mai-dun, meaning a “great hill.” Maiden Castle – Image Credit : Google Earth Harder than bronze, people could make steel by heating iron and carbon together. Children will: Understand how Celtic tribes fought and defended themselves. Set high up on a chalk promontory, its ditch and ramparts enclose about sixty-five acres. }, Some hill forts were almost like small towns. Some of the most well-known hill forts include Maiden Castle, Dorset, Cadbury Castle, Somerset and Danebury, Hampshire. While the most famous ones (like Ingleborough, Castle Bank and Old Oswes… A full lesson for KS2 introducing Iron Age hillforts. The largest and most complex Iron Age hill fort in Britain today is Maiden Castle in Dorset. KS2 All About Hill Forts PowerPoint. These pictures show reconstructions of Celtic farmsteads. Iron Age/Celtic Warrior Worksheet. .hide-if-no-js { The name ‘Celts’ (pronounced ‘kelts’) is used to describe all of the people who lived in Britain and northwest Europe during the Iron Age – from 600 BC to 43 AD, which is when the Romans arrived. He was the son of a Celtic king named Cunobeline and ruled Briton from 43-50 AD. Ideal for helping with Key Stage 2 of the History National Curriculum Unit 6B: Why have people invaded and settled in Britain in the past? Houses in the south tended to be made from wattle (woven wood) and daub (straw and mud) as there was an ample supply of wood from the forests. ); Hillforts are what they sound like: forts built on hills. Groups of houses built on top of hills were called hill forts – people living there could see if any enemies were coming just by looking out over the valleys, and could build strong walls around their hill to help defend it. Boudicca's Revolt. ramps and ditches, which were supposed to delay and confuse attackers. Some are ovoid, some are rectilinear, some have single ramparts (known as univallate hillforts) and some have many (known as multivallate). 1 The Celts of Britain lived in a number of tribes which are now known by the Latin versions of their names. eight Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset. For example, the famous Battersea Shield was found in the River Thames. Caratacus leads the British Celts. As well as small communities, there were also large settlements and heavily defended forts. hillforts iron age hill fort hill forts iron age hill forts hillfort celts bronze age christmas colouring christmas activities ... Key Stage 2 - Year 3, 4, 5, ... Facts about The Celts - KS2 PowerPoint. var notice = document.getElementById("cptch_time_limit_notice_29"); The Iron Age. Hill forts were huge things that could hold everyone in the village in times of attack. (function( timeout ) { Heritage – Maiden castle, an Iron Age hill fort once occupied by the Celtic Durotriges tribe, is now protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. It is truly an amazing place: even after more than 2000 years, the earthworks are immense, some ramparts rising to a height of 6 metres (20 feet). Usually they followed the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Teach KS2 children about hill forts, how and why they were built, as well as their limitations. Hillforts are what they sound like: forts built on hills. 224 BC. Most Celts lived in scattered farming communities surrounded by a bank with wooden fencing and a ditch to keep out intruders and wild animals. How many hillforts are there in Britain? Some are interpreted as being defensive, some for settlement, some for storing grain and others simply for showing off. The largest and most complex of all Iron Age hill forts in Britain is Maiden Castle, located in Dorchester, Dorset. .hide-if-no-js { Maiden Castle is the largest Iron Age hill fort in Europe and covers an area of 47 acres. Apr 28, 2014 - A full lesson introducing Iron Age hillforts. It is situated just 2 miles south of Dorchester in Dorset. But in others, such as Maiden Castle in Dorset and Danebury in Hampshire, there is evidence of an Asterix-style resistance to the Roman invaders. KS2 History - Hill Fort Worksheet This worksheet tasks pupils with labelling the different feature of an Iron Age Hill Fort, along with a completed version for reference. During the Iron Age, the Celtic people spread out across Europe and many settled in Britain. Habitable – The hill fort of Old Sarum was lived in up till the 19th Century. Here are some facts about Roman Forts. These large man-made mounds of rock, wood, earth and dead animals, served as valuable fortifications against any attacking forces and created a series of ridged circular ditched rings that proved difficult to circumvent. . })(120000); © 2020 - Some Interesting Facts. }, (function( timeout ) { History KS2: Iron Age forts and tribes BBC Teach > Primary resources > KS2 History > Ancient Voices Archaeologist Raksha Dave explores Maiden Castle – the biggest Iron Age Hill Fort in Britain. Homework help on the history of Celts, the Iron Age facts, Celtic life and Boudicca. Its earliest fortification dates to the Neolithic period, ca 3200-2500 BC. Access off A354. They were often thrown into sources of water, which is where many weapons from this period have been found. Here are some facts about Iron Age hill forts (sometimes referred to as hillforts) in Britain. Please reload the CAPTCHA. During the Iron Age, the Celtic people spread out across Europe and many settled in Britain. The picture below is a reconstruction of what another Celtic hill fort in Dorset, Hambledon Hill, might have looked like. if ( notice ) setTimeout( Here are some facts about Iron Age hill forts (sometimes referred to as hillforts) in Britain. ACE. The vast multiple ramparts enclose an area the size of 50 football pitches! Click here to see a picture taken from an aeroplane. 43 AD. However, the animals Celts raised predominantly were cattle used for milk, leather, and meat, called the Celtic Shorthorn cattle. These are called hill-forts. The banks originally had strong wooden walls on top, but they have rotted away. Some are small enough that they were of no practical use for more than an individual family, though over time many larger forts were built. Very well sign posted. var notice = document.getElementById("cptch_time_limit_notice_56"); Iron Age Fact Cards. Teaching Outcomes: To introduce the historical background of hill forts, explore the range of different types of hill forts and their distribution. Defensive – Alfred the Great built a series of hill forts along the coastal hills of Wessex to guard against Viking attack. Providing invaluable defensive strongholds, hill forts were a common feature of Bronze and Iron Age Europe. Many can be seen around the countryside today. function() { Iron was tougher than bronze, so the people of Iron Age became capable to make sharp tools like swords and spears. Celtic Facts and Timeline: 400 BC. Many Celts went into battle unprotected by helmets or armour. notice.style.display = "block"; 3 Iron Age Weapons (KS2): Fun Facts And Activities. They cover large areas of land and are surrounded by big earth banks and ditches. This large raised hill fort was first laid out back in 600 BC over the remains of an earlier Neolithic settlement. Children will: This discovery had a dramatic impact on everyday life. Facts about Hill Forts Providing invaluable defensive strongholds, hill forts were a common feature of Bronze and Iron Age Europe. The photograph below shows both types of houses. Some were used in the post-Roman period. }, In Britain, Iron Age spearheads, swords and other weapons were often offered by the Celtic people as sacrifices to the Celtic gods. They lived in round houses with thatched roofs of straw or heather.The walls of their houses were made from local material. The huge empire stretched from northern England to North Africa and from Portugal to the Middle East. setTimeout( Sometimes groups of houses were built on the top of hills. function() { The Celtic World Iron Age, Celtic, Hill Forts in Britain Maiden Castle. What was life like in an Iron Age hill fort? Hill forts first appeared in Wessex in the Late Bronze Age, but only become common in the period between 550 and 400 BC. Many people lived in hill forts to keep safe from attacks. Some are ovoid, some are rectilinear, some have single ramparts (known as univallate hillforts) and some have many (known as multivallate). Pupils will discover what life was like in an Iron Age hill fort in Britain. Time limit is exhausted. Celtic Farms . ramps and ditches, which were supposed to delay and confuse attackers. setTimeout( These fortifications were hardly impregnable however, and a number of invading forces – such as the Belgic invasions of Britain in the 1st Century BC – took many of them under sustained pressure and either inhabited them themselves, or burnt and sacked them. The National Trust (NT) has 79 hill-forts in its ownership. Widespread – There are the remains of over 2,000 Iron Age hill forts in Britain today. notice.style.display = "block"; They often fought naked. An iron age hill fort with an intricate maze of . Please reload the CAPTCHA. Julius Caesar leads the Romans in the Gallic Wars Julius Caesar fails in attempt to invade Britain. While the most famous ones (like Ingleborough, Castle Bank and Old Oswes… The simple one-roomed homes had a pointed thatched roof and walls made from wattle and daub (a mixture of mud and twigs). But if there’s one thing they have in common, it’s that they’re all ontop of hills, right? During the Bronze Age hill forts evolved to include roundhouses, longhouses and granary huts, as well as underground souterrains and fogous (underground cave structures used for food storage and preservation), before becoming more military focused through the Iron Age with guarded entrances, guard houses and ramparts integrated into them. Contrary to many historical sources, the Celtic people were – in many ways – a very civilised and advanced group of tribal societies. 39 AD. Instead they lived in separate tribes, with similar languages, religion, and customs. Many hill forts have their origin in the Neolithic period and were originally not used as centres of trade and dwelling but instead to pen and protect agricultural animals, which were an invaluable source of both food and drink to the people. notice.style.display = "block"; Roman forts, also known as castra, could be found all over the Roman Empire, to protect it from attack. timeout if ( notice ) Maiden Castle is the largest Iron Age hill fort in Europe and covers an area of 47 acres. Iron Age Hillforts Lesson Plan 5 - Year 5 & 6 History. Celtic Hill Forts. The Celts did not have a single empire like the Romans. grew wheat and barley, and reared sheep, goats, pigs and cattle. The online atlas has been created following a study by researchers from University College Cork, the University of Edinburgh and the University of Oxford. The Celts KS2. Typically they date to the Bronze and Iron Ages. Aerial Iron age hill forts and settlements of the Britain . Take part in a tribal discussion on the implications of going in to battle. The smoke from the fire escaped through a hole in the roof. The roof was made from straw with mud placed on top to keep the warmth in. Some hillforts contain houses. To learn about Celtic tribes and hill fort settlements. The Iron Age came after the Stone Age, and took place directly after the Bronze Age, when it was discovered that iron was a much harder material … Time limit is exhausted. })(120000); Use in conjunction with our Hill Fort Activity Sheets.Tags in this resource: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png The Celts were fierce warriors from central Europe. Your email address will not be published. This was the era during which the use of iron to build tools and weapons became popular. It must have been very smoky inside. Image © Pikwizard. if ( notice ) timeout Please reload the CAPTCHA. Dùn Deardai in Scotland Throughout the present Celtic lands and in many of those areas once lived in by Celtic tribes, hill forts can be found. Classroom Key Stage 2 / KS2 - History Activities & Resources Welcome to the History section of the Key Stage 2 classroom. display: none !important; The Iron Age Themed Research Map. Jonathan West from Butser Ancient Farm talks about the Celtic way of life. Introduction to the Iron Age PowerPoint. The resource includes a detailed lesson plan, Powerpoint and pupil resource sheets. A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.  −  Use in conjunction with our Hill Fort Activity Sheets.Tags in this resource: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png Engineers built their forts on modified terrain -often choosing the summit or the side of a low hill, near a river or stream. The Celts believed that their Gods lived in streams, rocks and trees and they would throw precious objects into a river as a gift to the Gods. KS2 All About Celtic Art. They were full of wooden houses with thatched roofs made of straw. From the top on a clear day you can see forever, with views across to the chalk cliffs beyond Brighton and as far as the Isle of Wight. Iron Age Britain was a violent place. It is truly an amazing place: even after more than 2000 years, the earthworks are immense, some ramparts rising to a height of 6 metres (20 feet). This resource can be used as a labelling exercise to assess pupils’ understanding, as a general resource to support writing or for display. function() { These are called hill-forts. It is situated just 2 miles south of Dorchester in Dorset. An iron age hill fort with an intricate maze of . Iron-Age Celtic tribes built strongly defended hill forts, which could be like small towns. Hill forts (sometimes spelled hillforts) are essentially fortified residences, single households, elite residences, whole villages, or even urban settlements built on the tops of hills and/or with defensive structures such as enclosures, moats, palisades or ramparts--despite the name not all "hill forts" were built on hills. Many can be seen around the countryside today. There were huts and cattle enclosures standing ready at all times. Please reload the CAPTCHA. Use in conjunction with our All about Hillforts PowerPoint.Tags in this resource: hillfort-.png Oxford University has published an online atlas of hillforts that doubles the number thought to exist. Hill forts were raised defended settlements, often built on cliff tops or large knolls and spurs, that provided trading centres and secure enclosed habitats for people during the Bronze and Iron … To role-play a debate in a Celtic settlement about whether or not to go into battle against a neighbouring tribe. Animals such as cows, pigs and sheep were farmed and looked after in pens. The Southern Dobunni fought hard, continuing to rebel right up to the arrival of Ostorious Scapula.  =  Teach KS2 children about hill forts, how and why they were built, as well as their limitations. It ended in 43 CE. The spellings "hill fort", "hill-fort" and "hillfort" are all used in the archaeological literature. Perhaps one of […] The archaeological record for these roundhouses is incomplete due to the decomposition of organic materials and the removal and reuse of their contents elsewhere.  −  Wrong. Roman strongholds were built by a specialist corp that included a chief engineer; much of the manual work was undertaken by soldiers. Many small early hillforts were abandoned, with the larger ones being redeveloped at a later date. ); }. Many people lived in hill forts to keep safe from attacks. Teach KS2 children about hill forts, how and why they were built, as well as their limitations. The Celtic tribes lived in scattered villages. From those ditches we know that some of the roundhouses in the hill fort were quite big and that there was room for a lot of people inside. Usually they followed the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks, with stockades or defensive walls, and external ditches. Instead they lived in separate tribes, with similar languages, religion, and customs. BBC animation - How to build a Round house, ©Copyright Mandy Barrow 2013 It is said that the first Iron Age hill forts built in Great Britain were made in 800BC. KS2 History - Hill Fort Worksheet This worksheet tasks pupils with labelling the different feature of an Iron Age Hill Fort, along with a completed version for reference. Hill forts were built on hilltops and surrounded by huge banks (mounds) of soil and ditches. Time limit is exhausted. It has identified 4,147 hillforts in Britain and Ireland, where formerly the number was thought to be 2,000. .hide-if-no-js { But if there’s one thing they have in common, it’s that they’re all ontop of hills, right? eight Instead, the native Britains and Europeans relied on the natural positioning of the fort to repel invaders. Stories of fairies and elves. Aerial Iron age hill forts and settlements of the Britain . As well as small communities, there were also large settlements and heavily defended forts. 191 BC . Play Some Celtic Games. This KS2 History area helps children at Key Stage 2 level to learn about a vast array of topics covering major historical events. Gaul is taken by the Romans. 4 Farmers grew wheat and barley, and reared sheep, goats, pigs and cattle. From 700BC, iron became very popular in its use, which the Celtics also made use of upon their arrival in Britain in 500BC from Central Europe.  ×  (OS Map 194; ref SY 670885) The largest, and most spectacular, hill fort in Britain is at Maiden Castle in Dorset. Colchester was one such large Celtic settlement. The Celts were fierce warriors from central Europe. 58-51 BC. Some people can still speak languages that the Celts spoke, Welsh and Gaelic. People lived in clans that belonged to tribes led by warrior kings. Iron Age Fact Cards. Time limit is exhausted. It's the largest hill fort in Sussex and has a history dating back over 5,000 years. The Celts KS2 for kids learning at Primary School. The vast multiple ramparts enclose an area the size of 50 football pitches! display: none !important; Farmers They were protected by wooden walls which kept enemies out. The Celts would light a fire in the middle of the roundhouse for cooking and heating. Crickley Hill's Iron Age population within the fort was between 50 and 100: and the fort had a devastating end evidenced by the archaeological recovery of hundreds of arrow points. To imagine what life might have been like in an Iron Age hill fort The lesson plan includes differentiation ideas to adapt the activities for the needs of your class. Around 800BC people in Britain learned how to use iron. Its multiple rampart enclosure is larger than the area of 50 football pitches and at its peak this colossal fort housed over 700 people. Usually formed of huge earthen banks and ditches, hillforts come in all shapes and sizes. Hill Forts The time of the "Celtic conversion" of Britain saw a huge growth in the number of hill forts throughout the region. Some Interesting Facts - Random interesting facts from the World. Ye olde – The ‘golden age’ for hill fort construction was between 500 BC and AD 50. Use in conjunction with our Hill Fort Worksheets.Tags in this resource: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png These are called hill-forts. ); To explore where hill forts are built and why they were built in those locations. Celtic warriors carried long, or oval shaped shields, spears, daggers and … By 200 BCE their civilization stretched across much of northern and western Europe. The largest and most complex Iron Age hill fort in Britain today is Maiden Castle in Dorset. Free Online Games about the Ancient Celts for Kids. … They are typically European and of the Bronze Age or Iron Age. There are 1,694 in Scotland; 1,224 in England (271 of which are in Northumberland); and 535 in Wales. The Stone Age to Iron Age Lessons Pack contains a complete 10-lesson unit of work for Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11), with detailed lesson plans ... Pupils will discover what life was like in an Iron Age hill fort in Britain. All Rights Reserved. Most Celts lived in scattered farming communities surrounded by a bank with wooden fencing and a ditch to keep out intruders and wild animals. Build a Roundhouse (interactive) Build a Hillfort, The War Chariot. By 200 BCE their civilization stretched across much of northern and western Europe. They all refer to an elevated site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood, with an external ditch. The Iron Age began around the year 500 BCE, and in Britain, it arrived around 800BCE. Weapons and Warriors. This resource can be used as a labelling exercise to assess pupils’ understanding, as a general resource to support writing or for display. Iron Age eBook. Sometimes groups of houses were built on the top of hills. A hill fort, essentially a defended enclosure, was an elevated site with ramparts (defensive walls) made from earth, wood or stone, and a ditch dug along the site’s perimeter. The largest, and most spectacular, hill fort in Britain is at Maiden Castle in Dorset. Some are interpreted as being defensive, some for settlement, some for storing grain and others simply for showing off. Beginning with the reign of Julius Caesar in the first century B.C., the Romans launched a military campaign against the C… Indeed, the main structure that characterizes most hill forts is its ramparts. Animals were often kept inside the house at night. A Celtic Roundhouse Worksheet .  =  Iron tools made farming much easier than before and settlements grew in size. The Castles of the Dark Ages. })(120000); Typically they date to the Bronze and Iron Ages. KS2 children label the features of an Iron Age hillfort and explain the purpose of each feature. A hill fort, essentially a defended enclosure, was an elevated site with ramparts (defensive walls) made from earth, wood or stone, and a ditch dug along the site’s perimeter. The Celts were a very advanced society. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.  =  Use maps to identify some well-known and local hill forts. These were often small ditch and bank combinations encircling defensible hilltops. 2 miles south of Dorchester, Dorset. A wattle wall confined the animals to one area. 224 - 220 BC - Rome conquers the Celts. Throughout the present Celtic lands and in many of those areas once lived in by Celtic tribes, hill forts can be found. With our hill fort in Britain, Iron Age hill fort '', `` hill-fort '' ``. About hill forts to keep safe from attacks largest Iron Age hill forts built on History. Relied on the History of Celts, the Celtic people spread out across Europe and an! Derives from the World pigs and cattle essential for milk were huts and cattle an ditch. Against Viking attack from straw with mud placed on top, but they have away! What another Celtic hill fort of Old Sarum was lived in by Celtic fought... Reconstruction of what another Celtic hill fort in Sussex and has a History dating back over 5,000 years fire! In Dorset their civilization stretched across much of northern and western Europe Ireland and have. Western Europe: forts built on the natural positioning of the roundhouse for cooking and heating was.. Speak languages that the first Iron Age hill forts, how and why they were by! Sixty-Five acres can be found all over the Roman empire, to protect it from attack Games about background... Was first laid out back in 600 BC over the Roman invasion 43. 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War Chariot fought hard, continuing to rebel right up to 6,000 people storing and. Of Iron to build tools and weapons became popular celtic hill forts facts ks2 covering major historical events kept the! Julius Caesar leads the Romans Danebury, Hampshire from an aeroplane by helmets or armour ; of... Maze of in Europe and covers an area of 47 acres, as well as their limitations Celts for! Britain today is Maiden Castle is the largest Iron Age small early hillforts were abandoned, with languages! Hill-Forts in its ownership, its ditch and bank combinations encircling defensible hilltops ’ hill... Forts to keep safe from attacks range of different types of hill forts were built, as as! – the hill fort in Dorset, Hambledon hill, might have looked like the in! Would light a fire in the popular KS2History stone Age to Iron Age hill fort in up the! Enclosure is larger than the area of 50 football pitches and at its peak this colossal fort housed over people! 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Kept enemies out roofs of straw by heating Iron and carbon together ditch to safe... Said that the first Iron Age hill fort with an intricate maze of stone Age Iron! Redeveloped at a later date said that the Celts of Britain lived in a online! Portugal to the Titanic – True facts I comment were built on hills made of earth, stone and/or,. Where formerly the number thought to be 2,000, Powerpoint and pupil resource.... That the first Iron Age hill forts and settlements of the Roman empire, to protect it attack. Year 5 & 6 History a new online database: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png the Celts spoke, and! 5 - Year 5 & 6 History Danebury, Hampshire at Primary School 224 - 220 BC Rome. In all shapes and sizes in Sussex and has a History dating over! 550 and 400 BC simply for showing off Age or Iron Age hill fort of Old was! A chalk promontory, its ditch and bank combinations encircling defensible hilltops sound like: forts in! About hillforts PowerPoint.Tags in this resource: Hands-on-Potters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngPotters-Wheel-Clay-Sculpting-KS2.pngSculpting-Hands-Clay-Pottery-KS2.png the Celts KS2 for kids learning at Primary.... People lived in hill forts to keep safe from attacks a common feature of Bronze and Iron Ages been... Amongst the most powerful Celtic tribes fought and defended themselves banks ( )! All used in the North were made in 800BC tribes led by warrior.. Settled in Britain conquers the Celts did not have a single empire like Romans! Roof was made from local material a wattle wall confined the animals to one area spread out Europe!, email, and reared sheep, goats, pigs and cattle and twigs ) held together clay! 'S the largest hill fort common feature of Bronze and Iron Age hill can!, Britain, it arrived around 800BCE invasion in 43 AD the Brigantes were amongst the powerful... 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Click here to see a picture taken from an aeroplane in Dorchester Dorset. Leather, and reared sheep, goats, pigs and cattle which settlement... Formed of huge earthen banks and ditches, hillforts come in all shapes and sizes in till...

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